Chitosan is widely used to produce absorbable surgical suture and hemostatic bandages.
Chitosan is more and more used as an eco-friendly dye mordant, particularly in conjunction with natural dyes. Due to its antibacterial properties, Chitosan is also gaining popularity as a textile fibre. Since chitosan is similar to cellulose, it can easily be blended with fibres such as wool, cotton, silk, polyester etc.
Chitin and chitosan have high organic solvent resistance, which is advantageous for separation membranes used with organic solvents, where chemical resistance is typical. Specifically, chitin is highly acid resistant and chitosan is highly alkaline resistant. These characteristics make it possible for chitin and chitosan to be used as separation membranes for a variety of uses in response to specific requirements. Applications for separation membranes are many and diverse; separation membranes must also function in a variety of conditions. For example, when hydrophilic or hydrophobic membrane materials are desired, they can be easily synthesized because chitin and chitosan have many reactive functional groups, such as hydroxyl and amino groups. These reactive groups are useful for the introduction of functional groups and cross-linkers, and consequently function to strengthen and improve separation membranes.
Water Soluble Chitosan with Free Amine Group for Drug Delivery
Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic, and cationic polymer. Due to its amino functional groups, chitosan has been extensively investigated in the areas of drug delivery, gene delivery, and biomedicine (Hirano 1999, Thanou et al. 2001, Dang and Leong 2006), and has been reported to enhance drug delivery across the nasal or mucosal layer without damage (Chae et al. 2005a,b). Especially, the cationic properties of chitosan offer valuable properties for drug delivery systems and gene delivery systems. For instance, ion complex formations between chitosan and anionic drug or DNA are available, and these kinds of ion complexes can be prepared simply by mixing into aqueous solutions (Calvo et al. 1997, Chae et al. 2005a,b, Kim et al. 2006).
Chitin, Chitosan, and Their Derivatives in Beverage Industry
Until now, wine clarification products came from two basic sources—animal (gelatin, bovine albumin, isinglass, casein), or mineral (bentonite, silica gel). Gelatin has a long history of use as a clarifying agent. Gelatin derives from the collagen contained in animal skin, bones, and cartilage. In Europe, the emergence of Creutzfeld–Jacob disease threw a new suspicion on animal-derived products used as adjutants in the food industry. Blood albumin is, for example, no longer authorized. Some suppliers also now exclusively require wines that have not been treated with animal proteins.
Other recent crises in relation to food safety have caused several winemakers to consider alternative solutions for wine clarification. A consequence is the boost in the search for innovative non animal derived products with equivalent efficiency compared to existing clarification agents and guaranteed non toxicity. From this point of view, the chitinous products derived from fungi appear attractive and promising alternatives to animal derived products such as gelatin. Indeed, chitosan has already been tested as a clarifying agent for beverages and most particularly for fruit juices. Chatterjee (2004) obtained a significant clarification effect by treating 50 mL of grape juice with 0.1 g of soluble chitosan, an effect that was greater than the one obtained with either bentonite or gelatin. Furthermore, it was observed that this treatment had no impact on the chemical characteristics of the wine and that it enhanced sensorial qualities (appearance, color, taste). Another study on apple juice yielded similar results to the Chatterjee study (Soto-paralta 1989).
Cosmetic Uses of Chitin and Chitosan
Some Chitin & Chitosan derivatives are usable as cosmetic ingredients because of their biodegradable, biocompatible, viscosity and moisture-holding properties. Chitosan and carboxymethylchitosan can be found in hair and skin care products.
Chitin, Chitosan, and Their Oligosaccharides in Food Industry
Biopolymers offer a wide range of applications in the food industry, including bioconversion for the production of value-added food products, food preservation, formation of biodegradable films, recovery of waste material from food processing discards, water purification, and clarification and deacidification of fruit juices. Actually, There is a growing interest in COS due to their special properties. These special properties of COS have been applied in food preservation, the use of COS as functional foods, and improvement in the quality of the animal origin foods.
Chitosan and Derivatives for Wastewater Treatment
The properties of chitin and chitosan enable them to attach to a wide variety of organic contaminants (bacteria, algae, urea, sweat), minerals, metals, and oil. Therefore, chitosan dramatically increases the efficiency of filtration systems which normally cannot capture fine particles and pollutant.
Chitin and Chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants against pathogens, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogenrelated (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation.
Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops.
Antimicrobial Activity of Chitin, Chitosan and Their derivatives
A couple of methods are employed to prepare antimicrobial chitosan films and coatings for food packaging applications. Solution casting method is one of the popular methods. As a general practice, chitosan films are prepared by using various kinds of cross-linkers.
Antidiabetic Activity and Cholesterol-Lowering Effect
The antidiabetic effect of chitosan has been reported in two types of diabetic models, type 1 and type 2. A number of studies have revealed that chitin and chitosan are effective cholesterol-lowering supplements and fat blockers. When used as a food supplement, chitosan can effectively reduce low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, and plasma cholesterol. At the same time, it improves the HDL cholesterol & total cholesterol ratio.
Chitosan is known to have immuno enhancing effects, antitumor activities, and increased protective effects against infection caused by certain pathogens.It exhibits anticancer activities and is used as delivery systems for drugs and bioactive agents in cancer treatment. Chitosan-based nanoparticles are also used in cancer diagnosis.
chitosan-based nutritional supplement for pets
Chitosan helps improve kidney function and assists in slowing down the progression of Chronic Kidney Disease.
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